Assisted reproduction: In vitro fertilization
In vitro fertilization
It is one of the techniques of Assisted reproduction most used in surrogacy agencies or specialized centers. This is due to its high probability of success compared to other techniques such as ovarian stimulation or ultra uterine insemination.
These alternative methods are originated by the curiosity of scientists and doctors when questioning about other options that couples have to conceive, if by traditional methods it has not been possible. In this way, several techniques have emerged that are gradually being perfected, and eliminating the high percentages of possible failures. The in vitro fertilization It began in 1978 and has undergone a series of evaluations and changes, which places it in one of the most favorable positions when it comes to being used by thousands of couples who, due to some alteration, cannot carry out the pregnancy.
In vitro fertilization (Vitro means test tube or under stable conditions) is a technique that allows to extract and analyze a series of mature eggs from the woman, and fertilize them with the sperm of the couple or a sperm donation. This last point will depend on the case to be made. The steps tend to be longer and the technique is put into practice once the studies determine in the woman or in the couple, their inability to become pregnant.
The alteration that prevents full-term birth can be caused by both the woman and the man, so it is important to go to a trusted doctor and determine the origin.
In vitro fertilization is generally carried out, after trying less tedious methods, so that the couple and the medical center verify that they cannot carry the natural course of procreation. The doctor must issue a certificate that in many surrogacy agencies is a fundamental requirement to opt for the method, this is because its use is moderate and under certain specific conditions.
The phases of the process can be divided into up to 6 stages, generalizing the IVF process, after the essential examinations that allow the couple to undergo the technique.
Also known as ovarian stimulation; By means of fertile drugs, it allows the woman to develop more than one oocyte (in general, only one oocyte is developed during menstruation). They are constantly monitored until they reach the right size.
It is proceeded by means of a small surgical intervention, which lasts a maximum of 20 minutes. Where the mature oocytes are collected, awaiting the liquid from the oocytes with great care.
In this step, the sperm have already been previously selected and analyzed in the culture area. In turn, the oocytes are selected and the rest go through a frozen state. So that the couple, if they wish, can use the technique again later.
The genetic material is fertilized, this procedure can take a few hours. In such case that the doctor determines it, the spermatozoa are injected directly into the ovules (it happens when the spermatozoa lack mobility).
This phase lasts approximately 5 days, it occurs when the ovum after being fertilized begins to divide. If the couple previously has a genetic disorder, the embryos develop cell growth and if the medical center authorizes it, they can examine the cells in order to prevent the child from developing the same pathology.
After 5 business days, the embryos are implanted in the woman's uterus with a catheter. This process takes a few minutes and does not need to be taken to the operating room.
After the first 14 days after implantation, a blood sample is taken to determine pregnancy. In most cases, the success rates are 65%.
These phases can have some mishap in the correct development of IVF.It is important to be aware of the success rates of the chosen agency. And establish with the doctor all the parameters that must be carried out. Each couple that undergoes this practice has different alterations, and it is important to understand that not all will be treated with the same series of previous steps.
The reasons why couples undergo this technique are diverse, among which we find:
- Blockage of the fallopian tubes.
- Alteration in the correct development of gametes.
- Low seminal concentration, or poor quality.
- Alterations in ovulation.
- Little or zero mobility of the spermatozoa.
- Problems in sperm transport.
- Some impossibility for the implantation of the embryo.
It is important that the couple have doctor's appointments, to determine their internal health and get to know the body in depth.
Having a disorder that prevents childbearing without external help can affect the feelings of the couple, but it is not a sign of social decline or the impossibility of achieving a pregnancy with their own genetic material.
It is the opportunity to open more research to know the human body and help thousands of couples around the world.