Symptoms of male infertility
In today's society there is a health problem that affects everyone equally, we refer to infertility. Defining this disease, it is when a sexually active couple has sex for more than a year without using contraception and still cannot conceive.
Male problems affect 30-50% within couples, but what causes infertility in men? And how can we identify it?
There are various health and physical problems associated with infertility, but in 30-40% of cases , The problem is detected in the testicles, which are the male gonads that produce sperm and sex hormones or testosterone, that is, they are the most important glandular organs of the male reproductive system. These organs are affected in many cases by infections such as mumps, surgeries, chemo and radiotherapy processes and injuries.
We also have among the causes, diseases or inherited health complications, which can cause a decrease or deficiency in the production of sperm. The main symptom of infertility is not being able to conceive despite having unprotected sex Therefore, early detection and timely treatment is essential.
Although there are no specific symptoms, if there are signs that alert us to this disease:
Body hair loss and voice changes: These symptoms usually alert, although it is not always the case, that the man has a condition called hypogonadism, which is a testicular dysfunction that affects or is related to low levels of testosterone and is related to 9% of infertility cases in men. mens.
Different signs can warn about hypogonadism, among these we have; decreased muscle mass and strength, weak bones, skin wrinkles and paleness, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, decreased size of the testicles.
Varicocele: It is the appearance of varicose veins in the testicles that is noted by the dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord. It is an anomaly that consists of the appearance of varicose veins in the veins that drain blood to the testicles. Varicocele is responsible for 15.6% of infertility cases in men.
Infections in the sexual organs of men: We speak specifically of infections of the urinary system or in the reproductive organs where symptoms such as swelling of the testicles, pain in the scrotum and pain when urinating occur.
When these signs are detected, it is convenient to visit a specialist so that through tests can give an accurate and timely diagnosis in order to avoid complications. To make an effective diagnosis, the clinical history, health, sexuality habits and a physical examination must be studied to help determine the possible causes of the reproductive problem.
Among these exams or tests we have the semen analysis (spermiogram or spermatogram).
Semen analysis is the first test to be performed since it is the sperm that transports the sperm in substances that nourish and protect.
This test is performed using a semen sample obtained through masturbation, although if it is not acceptable to the patient due to cultural or religious reasons, the doctor will provide a sterilized condom to obtain the sample through intercourse.
The spermiogram provides valuable and very specific information on the quality of the semen, quantity and quality of the sperm. For this, this test measures: how much semen produces (volume), total number of sperm (total count), number of sperm per milliliter of semen (concentration), percentage of sperm in motion (motility), percentage of sperm that have or do not have the correct form (morphology).
The sample must be examined within one hour after collection, normally it is examined in the doctor's office. In general, a visit for the examination is requested on two occasions, since the sample from the same patient at two different times may be different in many aspects, in addition to this, collecting or taking two samples makes it easier and more reliable to obtain a test. accurate result.
If an abnormal result is observed in the examination, the levels of hormones and reproduction are evaluated since there are chemical substances that control the production of sperm. These chemicals called hormones directly influence sexual interest and the ability to have normal, continuous sexual intercourse.
Two significant hormones for reproduction are folicostimulant (FSH) and testosterone (T) . The treating doctor uses blood tests to determine if the adequate capacity of these hormones is possessed, in addition to this and as the case may be, the levels of other hormones such as luteinizing (LH), estradiol, and prolactin or thyroid.
It is important to note that no semen test can predict 100% fertility, apart from the spermiogram there are several tests that are performed depending on the couple treated.